Poster Anthony Davis
Anthony Davis is one of America’s leading composers, with works that include several important operas.
Erik Jepsen

Anthony Davis represents Black struggle through opera

Composer Anthony Davis has done the seemingly impossible yet necessary work of creating modern operas that speak to the struggles of Black Americans and other marginalized communities. From his Pulitzer Prize-winning Central Park Five to the spiritual Wakonda’s Dream, he has earned a place as one of America’s leading composers. Learn about four of Davis’ operas that share the sometimes violent experiences of minorities in America.

‘X, The Life and Times of Malcolm X’

X, The Life and Times of Malcolm X debuted in 1986 and is based on the autobiography of Malcolm X. Playwright and author Amiri Baraka wrote the libretto.

The three acts depict various stages of Malcolm X's life, from his childhood to his rise as a civil-rights leader and his assassination in 1965. The first act focuses on his childhood, including his father's murder, his mother's institutionalization and his time in prison, where he joins the Nation of Islam.

The second act follows Malcolm X through his time as a minister in the Nation of Islam, his eventual split from the organization and his journey to Mecca, where he has a spiritual awakening and a new understanding of race and identity.

In the final act, Malcolm X deals with the final year of his life, his breakup with the Nation of Islam and his murder. A stirring chorus demanding justice for Malcolm X and ending bigotry and oppression marks the opera's conclusion.

It’s significant in the history of American opera because it marks a crucial turning point in creating a uniquely American operatic tradition that captures the complexity and variety of American life. Jazz, gospel and other African American musical genres are incorporated into the opera, bridging the divide between traditional European operatic forms and contemporary American popular music and resulting in a new sound that is distinctly American.

It’s also significant for examining racial, ethnic and social justice issues vital to Malcolm X's life and impact. A more profound comprehension of Malcolm X's life, legacy and place in American history is made possible by the opera's depiction of him as a complex, multifaceted figure who is both a political radical and a spiritual seeker.

It continues to impact audiences today by serving as a constant reminder of the continuing fight for justice and equality in American society.


With a libretto written by playwright and author Thulani Davis, Amistad tells the story of the slave revolt that created a pivotal moment in the history of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

In the opera, a collection of West African slaves was transported to America in 1839 on the Amistad, a Spanish ship. The captives overthrow their masters and seize control of the ship, but they are ultimately apprehended by American sailors and tried in New Haven, Connecticut. The dispute over the slaves' future escalates into a significant judicial and political conflict between abolitionists and slaveowners.

With regard to the history of slavery and the fight for justice, the opera examines several topics, such as the brutality of the slave trade, the strength of resistance and rebellion, and the difficulties of the legal system. The opera dives into the political conflicts surrounding the issue of slavery in mid-19th-century America and the cultural differences between Africans and Americans.

The significance of Amistad comes from its function as a piece of art that engages and informs viewers about the background of slavery and its continuing influence on American culture. Davis and Thulani Davis produced a potent and profoundly moving opera that tells the tale of the Amistad rebellion and illuminate a dark chapter in American history. Additionally reflecting the diversity of Black American culture and history, the opera includes a diverse ensemble of actors and uses a variety of musical genres, such as opera, gospel and African rhythms.

Amistad has been praised for its social and political significance and artistic value. The opera has been presented in various settings, such as community centers and schools. It has served as an educational resource to help educate young people about the history of slavery and its effects on American society. Because it brings together performers and viewers from various backgrounds to discuss issues of race, identity and justice, the opera has also been acknowledged for fostering conversation and understanding across cultural and racial divisions.

Ultimately, the opera impacts audiences because it raises awareness of the nation's continuing fight for freedom and justice.

“They Come As If From the Heavens” from Amistad

‘The Central Park Five’

With a text by Richard Wesley, this Davis opera concerns the Central Park Five, a group of Black and Latino teenagers who were wrongfully convicted of a brutal rape in New York City's Central Park in 1989.

The opera, which made its world debut in 2019, recounts the tale of the five teenagers who were wrongfully accused of the crime and coerced into confessing — Antron McCray, Kevin Richardson, Yusef Salaam, Raymond Santana and Korey Wise. The boys were found guilty and given years in prison despite little to no proof against them. The opera chronicles their harsh journey through the criminal justice system, including the racism and mistreatment they endured while incarcerated.

The Central Park Five is significant because of how forcefully it explores the concepts of racial inequity and the unfairness of the criminal justice system. The opera sheds light on how the criminal justice system has been used as a weapon of oppression and how law enforcement has unjustly targeted and persecuted Black and Latino communities.

The social and political significance of The Central Park Five has been acknowledged in addition to its artistic value. The opera has been presented in various settings, including schools and community centers, where it has been employed as a teaching resource to inform young people about the past of racial injustice and the significance of fighting for equality and justice.

The opera has become increasingly relevant to audiences today because of the continued killings of unarmed Black men and the value of holding those in positions of authority responsible for their deeds. It will be presented by the Metropolitan Opera in its 2023-24 season.

Davis explains the genesis of The Central Park Five

‘Wakonda's Dream’

Wakonda’s Dream
Arnold Rawls stars as Standing Bear in 'Wakonda’s Dream.'
Jim Scholz

Wakonda's Dream is an adaptation of Yusef Komunyakaa's play of the same name. It is about Louis, a Native American soldier who struggles to reintegrate into his society after serving in the Vietnam War. He suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder and is troubled by his memories of the war. He finds comfort in a recurrent dream where he encounters Wakonda, a strong spirit who supports him as he faces difficulties in real life.

The community that Louis lives in deals with several difficulties as the opera progresses, such as destitution, prejudice and violence. Louis seeks direction from his Wakonda dream throughout it all, finding courage and optimism in the spirit's knowledge and kindness.

The significance of the opera is found in its insightful investigation of issues relating to trauma, recovery and national identity. It provides a complex and nuanced portrayal of the struggles encountered by Native American communities more generally and the experiences of Native American soldiers returning from battle.

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